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Aaron Bergman�s Old Tongue Dictionary

This dictionary was compiled by Aaron Bergman in 1998 and remains one of the best Old Tongue references. It is reproduced here in its entirety.


Since it disappeared from the UT website, we have been unable to find an official copy of The Compleat Old Tongue on the web to link and we do not have current contact information for you. If you happen to see this, please drop us a line and let us know if we have your permission to keep this copy on EWoT (in which case we will acknowledge the permission) or not (in which case we will remove it).


A compilation of the documents of me, BAClubb, Mark, and Andrea Leistra. Also drawn upon is the long letter that Don Harlow was nice enough to send. I compiled, typed, and edited this document. I did not, however, find most of the words. Robert Jordan has written a letter on the subject. It is available here. Many people have also sent e-mails with words and other suggestions.


In an attempt to provide a definition for the majority of cases, certain linguistic assumptions were made that seem to be characteristic of the majority, although not all, of the Old Tongue statements in the series. These are assumptions about word order. The first is the characteristic word order of the sentence: predicate-verb-subject. Many of the sentences follow this with the notable exception of "Tia mi aven Moridin isainde vadin." In my opinion. For more information on this exception, see the corresponding entry. It has been suggested that I also assume that the adjective would precede the noun, but there are numerous examples that seem to contradict this, so I have elected not to do this. By looking at the cross-referenced phrase, one can draw one's own conclusions. Many assumptions have also been made based on the idea that "an", "in" and "en" all seem to indicate pluralization. One of the major problems with attempting to compile this list is that I do not believe that Mr. Jordan made an effort to provide a basis for the Old Tongue until after The Eye of the World. This is evidenced by the failure of phrases like "Tia mi aven Moridin isainde vadin" to follow established word order. Jordan has said that this is not true, however.


After thinking about it, I have decided to not include phrases from the Language of the Fourth Age, the Ogian Language and the Trolloc Language.

Key: ? indicates uncertainty 

Words and fragments:

a =
	/preposition or article/
a'dam =
	the leash /see "dam"/
a'vron =
	watcher /see "vron"/
aan =
aan'allein =
	one man /see "aan" and "allein"/
aethan ?=
	shelds /see phrase "aethan dor"/
aiel =
ailen =
	??? /see "ta'maral'ailen"/
ain ?=
	is /see note 1/
al =
	the /or/ of the
al'cair'rahienallen =
	the golden dawn hill /see "cair", "rahien" and "allen"/
alcair =
	the golden /see "cair"
algai'd'siswai ?=
	the fighters of spear /see "gai" and "siswai"/
alantin =
aldazar =
	the eagle /see "dazar"/
aldieb =
algode =
allein =
allen ?=
allende =
	??? /see phrase "Muad'drin..."/
aman ?=
an =
	/pluralization/ /see note 2/
angreal =
	/tool of the power/
aridhol =
	??? /a city of the second covenant/
asa =
asmodean =
	??? /contraction of real name?/
aso =
atha ?=
atha'an ?=
	peoples /see "atha" and "an"/
aven ?=
avende =
avendesora =
	the Tree of Life
avendoraldera =
	Cutting/Sapling of Tree of Life
ayende = 
baha = 
	??? /see "nar'baha"/
balthamel = 
	??? /a Forsaken/
bajad = 
	??? /see phrase "bajad drovja"/
be'lal = 
	??? /a Forsaken/
	?= blood
ca = 
	??? /see "ca'lyet"/
ca'lyet =
	do come /conjugation of "to come"/
cab ?=
	free /see note 3/
caba =
caba'donde = 
	a horse to ride /see "caba", "donde"/
caba'drin = 
caballein = 
	free man /see "cab" and "allein" and note 3/
cadin ?= 
	clothes /see "cadin'sor"/
cadin'sor = 
	working clothes
cair = 
cal = 
caldazar = 
	red eagle /see "cal" and "dazar"/
calhar = 
	red hand /see "cal" and "har"/
calichniye = 
car = 
car'a'carn = 
	Chief of Chiefs
carai = 
	for the honor /or/ honor
carn = 
chalinda = 
	sweet girl
choss = 
con =
concion = 
conje = 
	a type of needle
cour = 
	trap /see "cour'souvra"/
cour'souvra = 
cor = 
corenne = 
cova = 
	owner /see "mia'cova"/
covale ?= 
	owned one /see "da'covale"/
cuanda = 
cue = 
cueran = 
cuebiyar = 
cuebiyari = 
	hearts /see "cue" and phrase "valdar cuebiyari"/
cuendillar = 
d = 
da ?= 
	superlative /see phrase "da'es daemar" and "da'shain"/
da'covale = 
	person who is owned
da'es ?= 
	great /see phrase "da'es daemar"/
da'shain ?= 
	true peace /see note 4 and phrase "da'shain aiel"/
da'tsang = 
	despised one
dadaranell = 
	??? /see phrase "mafal dadaranell"/
daemar = 
	game /see phrase "da'es daemar"/
daghain = 
	fear /see phrase "Mordero..."/
dai = 
	battle /see note 4/
daishar = 
	glory /perhaps literally "battle blood"/
dal = 
dam = 
damane = 
	leashed one /see "dam" and "aan"/
dar = ??? 
	/see phrase "Muad'drin..."/
dar = 
darei =
dareis = 
dazar = 
demandred = 
	??? /a forsaken/
deveniye = 
din = 
diynen = 
	sounder /see "diynen'd'ma'purvene"/
diynen'd'ma'purvene = 
	Sounder of the Horn /see phrase "Nosane..."/
do ?= 
	over /a preposition/
doon = 
	??? /see phrase "seia doon"/
domashita ?= 
	warms /see phrase "Ninte..."/
domorakoshi = 
	language /see phrase "Nosane..."/
don = 
	??? /see "gai'don"/
donde ?= 
	to ride /see "caba'donde"/
dor ?= 
	red /see phrase "aethan dor"/
dornat = 
	some sort of hunting creature
dore ?= 
	dancer /see "n'dore"/
dovie = 
	/rel. to luck/ /see "dovie'andi" and "dovienya"/
dovie'andi ?= 
	dice /see phrase "Dovie'andi..."/
dovienya = 
drelle = 
	river of
drin = 
drovja = 
	??? /see phrase "bajad drovja"/
duadhe ?= 
duente = 
	holds /see phrase "Mordero..."/
dyo = 
e = 
en = 
	/pluralization/ /see "jeade'en", "shae'en" and note 2/
es = 
	??? /see phrase "da'es daemar"/
ellisande = 
	rose of the sun 
faile = 
far = 
ga ?= 
	is /see phrase "Kodome..."/
gai = 
	battle /See note 4/
gai'don = 
	??? /see phrase "tarmon gai'don"/
gai'shain = 
	pledged to peace in battle /see note 4/
gaidin = 
	battle brother /warder/ /see "gai" and "din"/
govane = 
	what /see phrase "Nosane..."/
graendal = 
	??? /a forsaken/
hael = 
	??? /see "m'hael"/
hailene = 
hame = 
	mountain /See phrase "Hama N'dore"/
har = 
haran ?= 
	hand of /see phrase "Shaidar Haran"/
hei = 
in ?=  
	/pluralization/ /see note 2/
inde =  
	no /or/ not /general negation/
iro =  
	we /see phrase "Nosane..."/
isain =  
	is /see note 1/
isainde =  
	isn't /contraction/ /see "isain" and "inde"/
isha ?=  
	betrayer /possibly no 'a'/
ishamael =  
	betrayer of hope /a Forsaken/ /see "isha" and "mael"/
jeade =  
	/contranction of "jenn" and something?/ /see "jeade'en"/
jeade'en =  
	true finder
jegal =  
	scaled animal
jenn =  
	truly /or/ true
jhin =  
	??? /see "so'jhin"/
ji =  
kardon =  
	green skinned fruit from a leafless spiny plant
kiserai =  
kjasic =  
kodome ?=  
	here /see phrase "Kodome..."/
lanfear =  
	daughter of the night /a forsaken/
logoth ?=  
	waiting /see phrase "shadar logoth"/
los =  
lyet =  
	??? /see "ca'lyet"/
m = 
	??? /prefix?/ /see "m'hael" and "m'taal"/
m'hael = 
m'taal ?= 
	 dogs /see phrase "shae'en m'taal"/
ma = 
	 the /see "diynen'd'ma'purvene"/
ma'vron ?= 
	 watchers over the sea /contraction/ /see "miere" and "vron"/
machin = 
	 ??? /see phrase "machin shin"/
mad = 
	 ??? /see "sha'mad"/
mael = 
mafal = 
	 ??? /see phrase "mafal dadaranell"/
mahdi = 
mahdi'in = 
	 seeker(s) /suffix is pluralization?/
mai = 
man = 
	 /related to sword or blade/ /see "mandarb", "manshima"/
mandarb = 
manetheren = 
	 mountain home
manetherendrelle = 
	 waters of mountain home /see "manetheren" and "drelle"/
manshima ?= 
	 sword /see "man", phrase "Suravye..."/
maral = 
	 ??? /see "ta'maral'ailen"/
marath ?= 
	 those who must /see "marath'damane"/
marath'damane = 
	 those who must be leashed /see "damane"/
mashadar = 
	 the creature in Shadar Logoth /see "shadar"/
mashiara = 
	 beloved of heart /or/ a love lost
mera ?= 
mera'din = 
mesaana = 
	 ??? /a forsaken/
mi =
mia = 
mia'cova = 
	my owner
miere = 
misain = 
	am /see note 1/
moghedien ?= 
	spider /a forsaken/
mordero =  
	death /see phrase "Mordero..."/
Moridin = 
	the grave /as in death/
moridin = 
	grave /or/ tomb
muad = 
muad'drin = 
	??? /see "muad" and "drin"/
muaghde ?= 
n'dore ?= 
	dancers /See phrase "hama n'dore"/
nar = 
	??? /see "nar'baha"/
nar'baha = 
	fool box
nei ?= 
	knife /see phrase "sovin nei"/
ni = 
	??? /see phrase "Kodome..."/
niende ?= 
	lost /see phrase "Sa souvraya..."/
ninte = 
ninto = 
no = 
	me /first person singular pre-verb direct object pronoun/
nosane = 
	speak /see phrase "Nosane..."/
oosquai ?= 
	whiskey /or some other alchoholic beverage/
ordeith = 
pas = 
	none /see phrase "Mordero..."/
purvene = 
	horn /see "diynen'd'ma'purvene"/
rahien = 
rahvin = 
	??? /a forsaken/
rhadiem = 
	??? /see phrase "Muad'drin..."/
rhyagelle = 
	those who come home
sa = 
	/superlative prefix/
sa ?= 
	in /see phrase "Sa souvraya..."/
sa'angreal = 
	very strong Power channel /see "sa" and "angreal"/
sa'sara = 
	"superlative" dance /see "sa" and "sara"/
sag ?= 
	time /see "sagain"/
sagain = 
	it's time /see "sag", "ain" and phrase "Dovie'andi..."/
sai = 
	/related to power/
saidar = 
	female half of power /see "sai" and "dar"/
saidin = 
	male half of power /see "sai" and "din"/
sam ?= 
sammael = 
	destroyer of hope /a forsaken/ /see "sam" and "mael"/
sar = 
sara = 
	dance /see "sa'sara"/
se = 
	themselves /reflexive pre-verb pronoun/
segade = 
seia = 
	??? /see phrase "seia doon"/
semirhage = 
	??? /a forsaken/
sene ?= 
	as/like /see phrase "Sene..."/
serenla = 
	stubborn daughter
sha = 
	??? /see "sha'mad"/
shaidar = 
	dark /see phrase "Shaidar Haran"/
sha'mad = 
	??? /see phrase "sha'mad conde"/
shadar = 
	shadow /see phrase "shadar logoth", "mashadar"/
shae ?= 
	dog /see "shae'en"/
shae'en ?= 
	dogs /see phrase "shae'en m'taal"/
shaiel = 
	she who is dedicated /see aiel/
shain ?= 
	peace /see note 4/
shambayan = 
shan ?= 
shar ?= 
	blood /see "tai'shar" and "daishar"/
shari ?= 
	bloods /plural of "shar"/
shatayan = 
shen = 
shoufa = 
sin = 
siswai = 
siswai'aman = 
	spear of the dragon
so = 
	??? /see "so'jhin"/
sofar = 
so'jhin = 
	/hereditary upper servants of the blood/
sor ?= 
	working /see "cadin'sor"/
sorda = 
sorei = 
sovin ?= 
	hands /see phrase "sovin nei"/
souvra = 
	mind /see "cour'souvra"/
souvraya = 
	my own mind /see phrase "Sa souvraya..."/
sovya ?= 
	another /see phrase "Sene..."/
staera = 
	copper scraping stick
sul ?= 
	holder /see "sul'dam"/
sul'dam = 
	leash holder /see "dam"/
suravye = 
	??? /see phrase "Suravye..."/
sursa = 
t'mat ?= 
ta = 
	/rel. to pattern/
ta'maral'ailen = 
	web of destiny /around ta'veren/ /see "ta"/
ta'veren = 
	focal point of pattern /see "ta"/
taal = 
	??? /see "m'taal"/
tai ?= 
	true /see "tai'shar"/
tai'shar = 
	true blood
tain = 
	/plural of "tai"/
taishite = 
	??? /see phrase "Suravye..."/
tarmon ?= 
	last /see phrase "tarmon gai'don"/
tcheran = 
	a strategy game
tel'aran'rhiod = 
	world of dreams /or/ unseen world
ter = 
	??? /see "ter'angreal"/
ter'angreal = 
	object that directs or uses one power /see "angreal"/
ti = 
tia = 
toh = 
tovya = 
	roll /probably third person plural reflexive form/
tsag = 
tsang ?= 
	hated one /see "da'tsang"/
tuatha = 
	/contraction involving "atha"./
tuatha'an = 
	Traveling People /see "tuatha" and "atha'an"/
vadin = 
val ?= 
	guard /see "valdar" and "valon"/
valdar = 
	/rel. to "guard"/ /see "val" and phrase "valdar cuebiyari"/
valdon ?= 
	that guards /see "val" and phrase "tar valon"/
vron = 
wansho = 
ya = 
	my own /suffix/ /see "souvraya"/
ye = 
zemai = 
	maize or corn

Note 1: "Misain", "isain" and "ain" all appear to be forms of the verb "to be".

Note 2: According to Jordan, the -n or -i suffix can both mean pluralization.

Note 3: "Caballein", it has been suggested, might be a contraction of "caba" and "allein" meaning "horseman". The use of it as "free man" would then be a cultural thing. This would avoid the creation of the new word "cab" meaning "free".

Note 4: "Dai" and "gai" seem to both mean battle. Also, "Da'shain" and "Gai'shain" are very much alike. "Shain" seems to mean something along the lines of "sworn to peace". There is also "Dai Shan" which sounds somewhat alike but means "Battle Lord". Draw your own conclusions.


aes sedai = servant to/of all
My guess is that this phrase should probably be translated "to all servant". Thus "aes" would probably be a contraction of "a" and the word meaning "all". "Sedai" would then mean servant.
aethan dor = red shields
An aiel warrior society. Possibly the "-n" ending indicates that "aethan" means shields, and thus "dor" would be another word for "red" in addition to "cal".
al caldazar = the red eagle
The sign of Manetheren. "Cal" means "red", and "dazar" means "eagle".
al ellisande = the rose of the sun
The sign for Aemon's wife, Eldrene. "Ellisande" can probably be divided into two words, but I have no idea how.
alcair dal = the golden bowl
An aiel meeting place. "Cair" means "gold" and "dal" means bowl.
atha'an miere = the sea folk
Probably literally "people sea" as "miere" means "sea", "atha'an" is the pluralization of "atha" meaning "person"
bajad drovja = ???
An expletive of some sort.
Caballein misain ye = I am a free man
Probably literally "Free man am I". "Cab". means "free", "allein" means "man", "misain" means "am", and "ye" means "I". See also note 3 above.
Carai an caldazar = For the honor of the red eagle
"Carai" means "honor", "an" is a preposition in this case, probably "of", "cal" means "red" and "dazar" means "eagle".
Carai an ellisande = for the honor of the rose of the sun
"Carai" means "honor", "an" is a preposition meaning "of" and "ellisande" means "the rose of the sun".
cor darei = night spears
An Aiel warrior society. "Cor" means "night" and "darei" means "spears".
da'es daemar = the great game /or/ the game of the houses.
I have no idea what any of the two to three words in this phrase mean.
da'shain aiel = true peace dedicated
"Da'shain" might mean "true peace" or something greater than piece if "da" is a superlative to "shain"'s "peace." "Aiel" means dedicated. Also see note 1 above for interpretation of da'shain.
dai shan = battle lord
"Dai" means "battle", "shan" means lord. See also note 1 above.
Deveniye, dyo ninte concion ca'lyet ye = Majesty, by your summons do I come
"Deveniye" means "majesty", "dyo" mean "by", "ninte" means "your", "concion" means "summons", "ca'lyet" means "do come" and "ye" means "I".
do miere a'vron = the watchers over the sea
Probably literally "over ocean, watchers". "Do" means "over", "miere" means "ocean" and "vron" means "watchers".
Dovie'andi se tovya sagain = It's time to roll the dice
"Dovie" seems to be related to "dovienya". which means "luck". Following the normal sentence order, this probably means "Dice themselves roll time it is." Thus, "Dovie'andi" means "dice", "se" is a relexive pronoun "themselves", "tovya" is a conjugation of "to roll", "sag""ain" means "is". The only two that cross-reference, however, are "ain" and "Dovie'andi".
duadhe mahdi'in = water seekers
An Aiel warrior society. "Duadhe" means "water" and "mahdi'in" is the pluralistaion of "mahdi" which means "seeker".
far aldazar din = brothers of the eagle
Probably literally "for the eagle, brother". An Aiel warrior society. "Far" means "for", "dazar" means "eagle" and "din" means "brother".
far dareis mai = maidens of the spear
Probably literally "for spear, maiden". The Aiel female warrior society. "Far" means "for", "darei" means "spear", and "mai" means "maiden".
hama n'dore = mountain dancers
An Aiel warrior society. I am guessing that the "n" on the second word indicates some form of pluralization. Thus, "n'dore" means "dancers" and "hama" means "mountain".
Inde muaghde Aes Sedai misain ye = I am no Aes Sedai meat.
Probably literally "not meat Aes Sedai am I" with the Aes Sedai modifying the preceding noun. "Inde" means negation, "muaghde" means "meat", "misain" means "am" and "ye" means "I".
jenn aiel = the "true" aiel
Probably literally "truly dedicated". The name for the "tribe" of Aiel who built Rhuidean. "Jenn" means "true" or "truly", and "aiel" means "dedicated".
Kiserai ti wansho = glory to the builders
"Kiserai" means "glory", "ti" means "to" and "wansho" means "builders".
Kodome calichniye ga ni Aes Sedai hei = Here is always a welcome for Aes Sedai
Probably literally "Here welcome is for Aes Sedai always". "Kodome" probably means "here", "calichniye". means "welcome", "ga" probably means "is", "ni" probably means "for" and "hei" means "always". This is a phrase from The Eye of the World, so neither the word order, nor the words seem to be standard, ie "ga" is not related to the "ain". family of "to be" verbs.
Los caba'drin = horsemen/cavalry forward
"Los" means "forward", "caba" means "horse" and "drin" means "soldier"
Los valdar cuebiyari = Heart-guard foward
"Los" means "forward" and "valdar cuebiyari" means "the heart guard".
machin shin = the black wind
The wind in the ways. No idea on word order.
mafal dadaranell = old name for Fal Dara
No idea on any word.
Mia ayende, Aes Sedai = release me, Aes Sedai
Probably literally "my release/freedom, Aes Sedai". "Mia" means "my" and "ayende" means "release/freedom".
Mia dovienya nesodhin soende = ???
Probably literally "My luck ??? ???". If the normal word order holds, "nesodhin" is the verb and "soende" is the subject. Mat says that this sounded like a "fervent wish".
Mordero daghain pas duente cuebiyar = Death fear none holds my heart
Translation is word for word.
Muad'drin tia dar allende caba'drin rhadiem = Footmen prepare to pass cavalry.
Probably literally "Foot soldiers to ??? ??? horse soldiers ???" "Muad" means "foot", "drin" means "soldier", "tia" means "to" and "caba". means "horse"
Ninte calichniye no domashitsa = Your welcome warms me
Probably literally "Your welcome me warms" with the direct object coming before the verb. "Ninte" means "your", "calichniye" means "welcome", "no". means "me" and "domashita" means "warms". Again, this is a phrase from The Eye of the World, so it does not follow the standard word order.
Nosane iro gavane domorakoshi, diynen'd'ma'purvene = Speak we what language, Sounder of the Horn
Word for word translation.
rahien sorei = dawn runners
An Aiel warrior society. "Rahien" means "dawn" and "sorei" means "runners".
Sa souvraya niende misain ye = I am lost in my own mind.
Probably literally "In my own mind lost am I". "Sa" probably means "in", "souvraya" probably means "my own mind", "niende" probably means "lost", "misain" means "am" and "ye" means "I".
seia doon = black eyes
An Aiel warrior society. No idea on word order.
Sene sovya caba'donde ain dovienya = Luck is a horse to ride like any other.
Probably literally "As/like another a horse to ride is luck". Thus, "sene" means "as/like", "sovya". means "another", "donde" means to ride, "ain" means "is" and "dovienya" means "luck".
shaidar haran = hand of the dark
"Shaidar" means "dark". "haran" means "hand of".
sha'mad conde = thunder walkers
An Aiel warrior society. No idea on word order.
shadar logoth = shadow's waiting
The present name for Aridhol. "Shadar" probably means "shadow" and "logoth" probably means waiting.
shae'en m'taal = stone dogs
An Aiel warrior society. Because of the plural "en" ending, "shae'en" probably means "dogs", and thus, "m'taal" probably means "stone".
shen an calhar = the band of the red hand
"Shen" means "band", "an" means "of", "cal" means "red" and "har" means "hand".
sovin nai = knife hands
An Aiel warrior society. Because of the plural "in" ending, "sovin" probably means "hands" and thus, "nai" probably means "knife".
Suravye ninto manshima taishite = Peace favor your sword
Probably literally means "??? your sword ???". No idea on the unknown word order. "Ninto" means "your" and "manshima" probably means "sword" as "man". is also present in "mandarb"..
tain shari = true bloods
An Aiel warrior society. "Tain" is the plural of "tai" and "shari" is the plural of "shar". No idea on word order. See also "tai'shar".
tar valon = tower that guards
"Valon" is probably related to "val" which probably means "guard", thus "tar" probably means "tower".
tarmon gai'don = last battle
"Gai" means battle which seems to imply that "tarmon" might mean "last", but "last battle" may not be a correct translation.
tia avende alantin = Ogier
Probably literally "to the trees brother". "Tia" means "to", "avende" means "tree" and "alantin" means "brother".
Tia mi aven Moridin isainde vadin = The grave is no bar to my call.
The phrase on the Horn of Valere. Probably literally "To my call, death isn't bar". "Tia" means "to", "mi" means "my", "aven" means "call", "Moridin" means "death", "isainde" means "isn't", and "vadin" means "bar" or "barrier".
valdar cuebiyari = the heart guard
"Val" probably means "guard" and "cue" means "heart". The interesting thing here is that "dar" means "sister". I am not sure what to make of this.

Aaron Bergman


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